Military History |
Timeline of Portugal's Liberal Wars
Posted 10 Jun 2006
The events described here are part of the build up to, and the early part of, the First Carlist War.
1821-26: King João VI
26 Sep 1815: Holy Alliance
In 1815 Austria, Prussia and Russian formed the Holy Alliance to combat liberalism in Europe (Wikipedia: Holy Alliance).
1816: Prince-Regent to King
When the mad Maria I of Portugal died in Mar 1816, her son was crowned as João VI of Portugal and Emperor of Brazil (Livermore, 1966). Joo and his wife Carlota-Joaquina, the sister of Ferdinand VII of Spain, had two sons: Pedro and Miguel.
1820: Liberal insurrections in Spain and Portugal
In very early 1820 a liberal insurrection broke out amongst Spanish troops camped at Cadiz (Livermore, 1966). This movement forced Ferdinand VII of Spain to declare himself in favour of a constitution.
Marshal Beresford sailed to Brazil in an attempt persuade João to return to Portugal (Livermore, 1966). In his absence on 24 Aug 1820 liberal officers revolted in Porto. The movement spread and quickly took over the government of Portugal.
In Oct 1820 Marshal Beresford tried to land in Portugal but was denied permission and sailed on to England (Livermore, 1966; actually Livermore says 1820 but this doesn't seem to tally with other events).
Jul 1821: João VI in Portugal
In Jul 1821 João VI arrived in Portugal leaving Pedro to rule in Brazil (Livermore, 1966).
23 Sep 1822: Portuguese Constitution
With the Portuguese government dominated by radical constitutionalists, João VI was forced to swear to uphold Portugal's first constitution (Livermore, 1966). In contrast Carlota-Joaquina refused to swear to the constitution and went into internal exile, becoming the leader of the counter-revolutionaries.
12 Oct 1822
João VI's son Pedro I was acclaimed as constitutional emperor of Brazil on 12 Oct 1822 (Livermore, 1966). João VI retained sovereignty of Portugal, but the real winner was Carlota-Joaquina whose counter-revolutionaries gained strength as the King's power waned.
Apr 1823: '100,000 sons of St. Louis'
At the prompting of the Holy Alliance the Duke of Angoulême led a French army into Spain to expel the liberal government and restore Ferdinand's absolute power (Holt, 1967; Livermore, 1966). Being royalist in nature this was the first French army for 34 years to march under the Bourbon lilies on its standards. There was no resistance from the Spanish population.
24 May 1823: Ferdinand VII of Spain
The French returned Ferdinand VII of Spain to absolute power (Livermore, 1966). Two paramilitary bodies (the Army of the Faith and the Royalist Volunteers) helped hunt down and execute political undesirables (Holt, 1967).
27 May 1823: The Vilafrancada
The absolutists in Portugal saw their opportunity and on 27 May 1832 rose in rebellion (Livermore, 1966). The count of Amarante, a leading absolutist, sounded a call to arms from his headquarters at Vila Real in Trás-os-Montes Meanwhile the military rose at Vila Franca de Xira, north of Lisbon (hence the name of the espisode, the Vilafrancada). João's younger son Miguel soon joined the rebellion as did part of the Lisbon garrison. Miguel refused his father's call to return, and subsequently João himself took the lead of the rebellion. The radical government fell apart and João installed moderates.
Apr 1824: The Abrilada
In Apr 1824 part of the Lisbon garrison acclaimed Miguel king (Livermore, 1966). Miguel joined them, confined his father, arrested some of his enemies, and drove others into exile. Marshal Beresford managed to get João on board an British ship from where João reasserted his power and had Miguel stripped of his rank (Generalissimo) and sent abroad (to Paris then Vienna). The Abrilada, as it was to become known, lasted five days. Although some called for a greater British military presence in Portugal, they only maintained a naval squadron (including 750 marines) at Lisbon.
29 Aug 1825: Brazilian Independence
On 29 Aug 1825 Brazil declared independence from Portugal under Pedro I of Brazil (Livermore, 1966). The title of Emperor was retained for João until his death.
10 Mar 1826: Pedro IV of Portugal
King João VI of Portugal died on 10 Mar 1826 (Livermore, 1966). His eldest son, Pedro I of Brazil, briefly inherited as Pedro IV of Portugal.
1826-28: Minority of Maria II of Portugal
29 Apr 1826:
Neither the Portuguese nor the Brazilians wanted a unified monarchy and Pedro abdicated the Portuguese crown in favour of his seven year old daughter, Maria da Glória of Portugal (Livermore, 1966). There was a key condition, when she came of age (at 14 years) she would marry her uncle, Miguel. This annoucement coincided with a revision to the 1822 constitution. Pedro then returned to Brazil with his daughter, the new Queen of Portugal, and leaving his sister Maria-Isabel as regent. Miguel accepted this solution and distanced himself from the absolutists, some of whom staged a rebellion, failed, and fled to Spain.
When Miguel turned 25 himself, he put in a claim on the regency, although nobody accepted the suggestion out of fear of the absolutists (Livermore, 1966).
In Spain the absolutists staged "the Revolt of the Aggrieved" in Catalonia (Holt, 1967). The government brutally suppressed it.
The marquis of Chaves rebelled with his troops (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). The 12th Light Infantry (caçadores) Battalion, including Major Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira, was involved in the marquis's suppression.
22 Feb 1828: Miguel returns
On 22 Feb 1828, Miguel returned to Portugal, and on 26 Feb he took the oath to his brother and the charter and was installed as lieutenant-general (Livermore,1966). This loyalty did not last long.
1828-31: Repression under Miguel I
Mar 1828: Suppression of the constitution
Miguel and his mother, Carlota-Joaquina, immediately began to oust the liberals (both radical and moderate) and install their cronies (Livermore, 1966). Miguel dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers. .Demonstrations in favour of Pedro or the constitution were prohibited.
24 Apr 1828: British withdraw from Lisbon
The British troops in Lisbon (presumably the naval squadron mentioned earlier) were withdrawn as a protest against Miguel's usurpation (Livermore, 1966).
16 or 18 May 1828: Porto Rebellion
On 16 or 18 May 1828 the garrison of Porto proclaimed its support for Pedro, Maria da Glória, and the charter (Livermore, 1966). 12th Light Infantry ( caçadores) Battalion, with Major Silva Pereira, was part of the garrison (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). Aveiro and other places soon followed Porto's lead. Miguel suppressed these rebellions, and many thousands of liberals were either arrested or fled to Spain and Britain. There followed five years of repression. [Livermore say 18 May and Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas says 16 May for the original revolt.]
This is probably the event known as the Belfastada (Wikipedia: Belfastada). A group of exiled liberals landed at Porto from the English ship the Belfast, and raised a rebellion. The rebellion failed and the senior liberals were forced to take refuge back on the Belfast, and leave again for England.
Of all of Portuguese territory, only the Azores remained faithful to Pedro, partly because the garrison stayed loyal (this was the 5th Light Infantry Battalion, Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34) .
15 Jun 1828
Having declared for Pedro in May, Major Silva Pereira and the 12th Light Infantry (caadores) Battalion engaged in guerrilla warfare and defeated a Miguelite column at the Espinhel bridge on 15 Jun 1828 (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). Silva Pereira subsequently went to England where he joined other Portuguese exiles.
08 Jul 1829
The Count of Vila Flor arrived in Village of the Beach (Vila da Praia), on the island of Terceira in the Azores, having sailed from France and avoided the Miguelite blockade (Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34). He began to fortify the area.
11 Jul 1828: Miguel I of Portugal
On 11 Jul 1828 Miguel was proclaimed king by the traditional cortes (Livermore, 1966). The United States and Mexico were the only two countries to recognise him; in contrast the Holy See, Great Britain, Austria, France, Naples and Spain protested against the illegal suppression of the constitution.
11 Aug 1829: Battle of the Beach of the Victory
Dom Miguel sent a squadron of 22 ships to the Azores, which were controlled by Pedro (Câmara Municipal da Praia da Vitória; Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34; Wikipedia: Batalha da Praia da Vitória). The Miguelite squadron attacked the fortifications in the bay near the Village of the Beach (Vila da Praia), on the island of Terceira. After a day of battle the liberals under e Count of Vila Flor emerged victorious, taking hundreds of prisoners. After the war (12 Jan 1837) the village was renamed the Beach of the Victory (Praia da Vitória) to commemorate the battle .
20 Jan 1830
Having reformed in Belium, the 12th Light Infantry ( caçadores) Battalion (including Major Silva Pereira) ran the Miguelite blockade and landed on Terceira (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). Silva Pereira subsequently joined the 5th Light Infantry ( caçadores) Battalion.
Following this victory the Count of Vila Flor proceeded to secure the remainder of the archipelago (Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34). With 1,400 men, including the 5th Light Infantry (caçadores) Battalion (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas), and a few vessels he took the islands of Pico, S. Jorge, Faial, and S. Miguel. He was outnumbered; S. Miguel alone had more than 3,000 defenders.
Jul 1830: France and Britain more favourable to Liberals
In Jul 1830 the French Bourbons were replaced by liberal monarchy of Louis-Philippe (Livermore, 1966). The new government began to favour the exiled Spanish liberals.
About this time the British sent a warship to the Tagus (Livermore, 1966). Admiral Roussin fired on the batteries at the mouth of the Tagus and seized two Portuguese warships.
Sometime in 1830 Carlota-Joaquina died (Livermore, 1966).
1831-34: Resurgence of Pedro IV
Apr 1831: Pedro abdicates in Brazil
In Apr 1831 Pedro abdicated in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain where he began to organise a military expedition (Livermore, 1966).
Feb 1832: Pedrite expedition sails
In Feb 1832 the Pedrite expedition sailed for the Azores, which were still in the hands of the liberals (Livermore, 1966).
Mar 1832: Government in exile
Pedro set up a government in exile in Terceira (Livermore, 1966).
27 Jun 1832
At the end of Jun 1832 Pedro sailed from the Azores (Livermore, 1966; Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34). He took with him 8,300 men, including 7,500 soldiers, two frigates, a corvette, two brigs, four schooners, and forty transports, and three brigades of field artillery. Pedro left behind detachments on S. Miguel and Terceira. The Terceira detachment was ordered to create a National Battalion (presumably militia), which became the 4th Line Infantry and served in the lines of Lisbon and the subsequent campaign.
8 Jul 1832: Pampelido Landing
Pedro's liberal army landed at Pampelido, at the mouth of the Mindelo to the north of Porto (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966).
9 Jul 1832 - 20 Aug 1833
Siege of Porto (Cerco do Porto)
Pedro IV entered Porto on 9 Jul 1832, and was immediately besieged by the Miguelite army (Cronologia do Liberalismo). In Portugal the siege became known as Cerco do Porto, i.e. Porto's Wall. It lasted over a year, with many assaults and sorties. Eventually Pedro took a risk and sent an expedition to the Algarve by sea (Jun 1833) despite the fact Porto was still under siege. This proved a war winning strategy as although the siege of Porto continued it became a secondary theatre of operations. Marshal Saldanha eventually broke the siege on 18 Aug 1833 and by 20 Aug the city was free.
The Serra do Pilar is a range of hills located near Santa Marinha (Vila Nova de Gaia) on the south bank of the River Douro (Wikipedia: Serra do Pilar). It had the only liberal redoubt (a convent) south of the river, and controlled the river estuary thus allowing the defenders to land essential provisions. Lovell (1835) who visited the Serra redoubt during the siege (12 Jan 1833) considered the fort to have weak defences, and consequently Lovell admired the commander and his men for managing to defend it.
9 Jul 1832: Porto
Unaware of the exact number of the approaching liberals, the 13,000 Miguelite defenders of Porto abandoned the city (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto) Viscount Santa Marta, commander of Miguelite division operating between the Figueira Estuary and the village of Vila do Count, decided to deploy in the village of Vila Nova de Gaia (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). The liberal army entered Porto unopposed, although Santa Marta's men began to shoot into the city.
To protect British interests, a naval squadron under Commander William Glascock in HMS Orestes was stationed in the Douro, where it came under fire from both sides (Wikipedia: Liberal Wars).
10 Jul 1832
The liberal admiral, the Englishman George Sartorius, ordered the ships boats to enter the bar
of the River Douro and to respond to the Miguelite fire (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto).
Meanwhile, protected by the naval squadron, the liberal division of lieutenant-colonel João
Schwalbach crossed the river and occupied the Serra do Pilar, the fortification in Gaia,
compelling the Miguelites to withdraw to the town of Oliveira de Azeméis.
Schwalbach João then advanced to Alto da Bandeira (literally Height of the Flag) and positioned his advance guard in the village of Carvalhos (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). This brought the two armies into contact although neither side desired to escalate the action at that time.
Pedro had 8,544 soldiers, plus 2,100 volunteers and conscripts (Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34). Although the liberals retained Serra do Pilar on the south bank of the river, they had had to abandon the three major heights to the north (Regado, Antas, and Covelho) and the position of Lordelo that linked the city with the Estuary.
14 Jul 1832: Porto
18 Jul 1832: Action at Penafiel
Action at Penafiel (Cronologia do Liberalismo). A liberal column defeated the Miguelites forces around Porto, attacked the city of Penafiel, and then returned to Porto (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). [Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto says this occurred 23 Jul.]
22 Jul 1832: Reconnaissance at Valongo
Dom Pedro ordered a column to reconnoitre towards Valongo (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). The 5th Light Infantry ( caçadores) Battalion, including Major Silva Pereira, were part of this force (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas),
23 Jul 1832: Battle of Ponte Ferreira
The Liberal column heading for Valonga fell into a Miguelite ambush near to the bridge called Ponte de Ferreira, and was forced to withdraw to the River Tinto (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto).
The Battle of Ponte Ferreira caused some alarm in the city and Serra do Pilar was fortified under major Sá Nogueira (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). Dom Pedro, who now saw the impossibility of occupying the north of Portugal, settled into Porto. He reorganised his Army, creating the General staff. Pedro also sent Pedro de Sousa Holstein to London to get financial support and to raise officers and soldiers.
27 Jul 1832: Action at Grijó
A violent encounter occurred to the south of Grijó (Cronologia do
Cerco do Porto). Póvoas defeated the liberal forces of the Count of Vila Flor and forced them
to retreat to Alto da Bandeira.
General Caspar Teixeira, Viscount of Sá Peso da Régua, was appointed supreme Miguelite commander over generals Póvoas and Santa Marta (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto).
Teixeira started building lines around Porto, including a series of strong redoubts with 15 batteries (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). In the north these covered Quinta da China, Campanhã, Da Senhora da Luz, and the Douro Estuary. To the south the lines covered Cabedelo, Canidelo, the Douro Estuary, and Pedra Salgada (next to the mount of the Seminary – presumably Serra do Pilar).
7 Aug 1832: Action at Souto Redondo
Miguelites defected liberals at Souto Redondo, and liberals withdrew to Porto (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
8 Aug 1832
Miguelite reconnaissance in the north of Porto (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
23 Aug 1832
Major Silva Pereira promoted to lieutenant-colonel (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
8-11 Sep 1832
Liberals repelled attacks on Porto and the Serra do Pilar (Cronologia do Liberalismo). At the Serra do Pilar, the attack was courageously repulsed by the volunteers known as the Poles (os polacos) (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto) On 8 Sep the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion also helped defend the Serra do Pilar Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas) .
Miguelites occupied Gaia (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
Teixeira appointed commander of the Miguelite army (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
9 Sep 1832
16 Sep 1832
28 Sep 1833
Colonel Silva Pereira distinguished himself in a sortie from Porto (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
29 Sep 1832
The liberals in Porto repelled a Miguelite attempt to storm the city (Livermore, 1966). Under the cover of a thick fog the Miguelites advanced at 0600 or 0700 hours toward Campanhã on the eastern wall (0 Cerco Do Porto Na Freguesia (1832-1833); Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). They penetrated the area defended by the batteries of the Bonfim, Cativo and Fojo, but were violently stopped at the Rua do Prado. The resulting battle was so fierce that the street was subsequently renamed Street of the Heroes (Rua do Heroísmo). Dom Pedro was involved in the battle. Lieutenant-colonel Pacheco distinguished himself defending a position between S. Cosme road and the battery of the Barros de Lima. João Nepomuceno de Macedo, a cavalry officer, with 300-400 men held an attack in Bonfim zone; in 1835 he was made Baron S. Cosme to commemorate his contribution. After nine hours of combat, and having made no significant progress in any position, Teixeira called off the attack, The defenders lost 650 men and the attackers 4,000. As a result Dom Miguel decided to head north in an attempt to raise moral in his army.
Also in Sep 1832 Don Carlos of Spain was banished to Portugal, and as a result many Carlists were in Portugal where they supported the Absolutist forces (Livermore, 1966; Vieira, 2004).
11 Oct 1832: Naval Battle ??
Indecisive naval battle fought in the northern waters (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
13 -14 Oct 1832
The Miguelites completed the encirclement of Porto and had artillery on the left bank of the Douro (Cronologia do Liberalismo). Possibly this means Teixeira's lines of circumvallation were completed.
16 Oct 1832
Dom Miguel left for Braga (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
1 Nov 1832
Dom Miguel established his general staff in Braga and replaced Caspar Teixeira in the command
with Viscount Santa Marta (Wikipedia:
Cerco do Porto). [Cronologia do Liberalismo says the substitution happened 26 Oct.]
Hunger and disease were beginning to have an effect in Porto and the defenders continued to sortie in an attempt to break the siege ( (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto).
11-12 Nov 1832
On 11 Nov 1832, the birthday of Dom Pedro, the Miguelites commenced an uninterrupted bombardment of Porto, which lasted until night fall on 12 Nov (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). This had the reverse effect of that intended, as the residents pulled together in support of the liberal cause. On the other hand, a shortage of cash to pay the troops led to constant riots by the English mercenaries and the departure of some, including admiral Sartorius with ships of the naval squadron.
14 Nov 1832
Miguelites repelled a sortie of the besieged liberals (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
17 Nov 1832
Lieutenant-colonel Silva Pereira distinguished himself when the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion sortied and took the Hill of Antes (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). The position was as some distance from the liberal lines, between a battery of the mount Quinta dos Congregados to the right and the battery of Guelas de Pau to the left. Lieutenant-Colonel Silva Pereira distinguished himself sufficiently to be subsequently promoted to full Colonel and commander. Presumably, however, the Liberals withdrew as Cronologia do Liberalismo says the Miguelites repelled the sortie.
28 Nov 1832
Miguelites repelled a sortie of the besieged liberals (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
17 Dec 1832
Liberals successfully sortied to Gaia, the magazine of Dom Miguel’s army (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
1 Jan 1833
Solignac appointed general of the liberal army (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
24 Jan 1833
Miguelites frustrated an attack on their positions to the northwest of Porto, at the positions of Crasto and Queijo (literally “Cheese”) (Cronologia do Liberalismo). To quote Lovell (1835, p 189-190) who was present
The Marshal determined on attacking the right of the Miguelite position ; indeed, to cut off the right towards the fort of Queixo. The fleet were to act in combination : however, they did not get to their stations in time, and Sartorius's crew had mutinied and refused to weigh anchor. At three P.M. the attack on the land side commenced. After a severe action the Miguelites were driven back some little distance, and the height called Castro in front of the lighthouse was taken. The troops nearly reached Queixo Castle, but the Miguelites stood fast at Lordello ; and a second attack, which the Marshal had ordered, did not take place; countermanded, it is said, by the Emperor, who feared to endanger the city. The Marshal, finding that the attack upon the enemy's right did not cause the Miguelites to weaken their centre, fell back after dark, and with considerable loss to his old ground ; much disheartened on finding his support doubtful, and his French troops not quite equal to the veterans of Napoleon. Indeed the Miguelites drove them back more than once, and the French found themselves opposed to the old regiments who, under the Duke of Wellington and Marshal Beresford, had learned to beat them.
28 Jan 1833
General Saldanha arrived at the Porto with a group of liberal extremists (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). Dom Pedro promoted Saldanha to marshal, and gave him the command of 2nd division.
The Miguelites threw some shells into the town : they re-occupied Monte Castro (from which they had been driven during the late sortie), and were throwing up works in all directions (Lovell, 1835).
4 Feb 1833
Cholera appeared amongst the inhabitants of Porto (Lovell, 1835).
6 Feb 1833
The British troops in Porto mutinied for more pay (Lovell, 1835).
21 Feb 1833
The Count of S. Lourenço was appointed command of the Miguelites (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). He continued the attacks and bombardment on Porto. The situation in the city was difficult, with a lack of food and firewood being significant problems. The situation was so desperate that some considered capitulating, although Saldanha opposed this suggestion.
Lovell (1835) had a novel solution "Whilst in this distressed state, not knowing where to look for troops, I recommended the Emperor to send to New Zealand, as those people kill and eat their enemies, which would much simplify the defence" (p. 200).
2-24 Mar 1833
Liberals repelled Miguelite attacks on the lines to the east and northwest of Porto (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
2 Mar 1833
Colonel Silva Pereira was given command of the 2nd brigade of the 1st division (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
4 Mar 1833
At day-break the Miguelites made a faint attack in the direction of Agoa Ardente and Bomfim (Lovell, 1835). At 0700 hours they assailed the Pastellero and Lordello village under a fire from all their batteries ; they were, however, repulsed, and driven back upon their entrenchments. At the same time an attempt was made upon the Serra convent, but the Miguelites were again defeated by a fire of grapeshot. Towards mid-day the fire slackened, and guns were only fired occasionally for the rest of the day.
13 Mar 1833
Admiral Sartorius was dismissed from command of the liberal fleet (Lovell, 1835). Cronologia do Liberalismo says this occurred 13 Jun 1833, which lends credence to Lovell's claim that Sartoirus effectively ignored the order (and arrested the officer sent to arrest him).
16 Mar 1833
Don Carlos of Spain arrived in Portugal (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
23 Mar 1833
The Miguelites advanced under cover and made an attack upon an outwork near to the Agoa-ardente entrance into the city, and destroyed it (Lovell, 1835). Their skirmishers came to the lines, and some of them entered near Bomfim. The Pedroites sortied to retake this point, which after some considerable loss on both sides was accomplished and the Miguelites were driven back. Simultaneous attacks were made upon Foz and the Pastellero, but both equally failed.
24 Mar 1833: Hill of Antes
Colonel Silva Pereira and the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion intrepidly attacked the Hill of Antes again, compelling the enemy to abandon it (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). They then repelled two counter- attacks by superior numbers. As a result Silva Pereira became a knight of the order of the Tower and Sword
Regarding Hill of Antes Lovell (1835) says "After the affair of the 26th, part of the hill of Antes had been gained, and some works thrown up : it still remained unoccupied". This puts the date in doubt.
5 Apr 1833
Being Good Friday, the flags of the contending armies were hung, half-mast high, on the different forts and redoubts the white on the Miguelites, and the blue and white on those of the Pedroites (Lovell, 1835).
8 Apr 1833: Covelho Hill
Don Pedro opened fire on the Miguelite redoubt on Covelho Hill, with the intention was to storm the work that evening, but the undertaking somehow failed (Lovell, 1835). It seems the Marshal was against the idea.
9 Apr 1833: Covelho Hill
In an audacious blow the liberals sortied and took the Covelho redoubt (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). Colonel Silva Pereira was involved in the fight at Covelho (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). This demoralized the besiegers, and men began to leave the ranks.
Regarding this action Lovell (1835) says "The Miguelites made an attack to the right, to divert our attention; they afterwards abandoned the heights of Covelho, upon its being menaced, and it was taken possession of without loss. Why the Miguelites did not defend it, having the village of Paranhas immediately behind them, I cannot imagine" (p. 230).
10 Apr 1833: Covelho Hill
At day-break this morning the Miguelites made a desperate effort to recover the Covelho Hill (Lovell, 1835). The Liberals beat them back, advanced on the village of Paranhas, and drove the Miguelites out in a bitter fight. The Miguelites were simultaneously threatening Foz, Lordello, and the Quinta of Vanzellares ; but they failed in every place. The British suffered much in the attack.
Apr 1833: General Bourmont
The out-of-favour French General Bourmont arrived in Portugal in Apr 1833 with a brief from the Holy Alliance to assist Miguel (Livermore, 1966).
In May Bourmont was sent to help Miguel take Porto - a prerequisite for the Holy Alliance acknowledging Miguel (Livermore, 1966).
1 May 1833
Admiral Sartorius was reinstated in his command of the fleet (Lovell, 1835).
1 Jun 1833
The Duke de Palmela, Pedro's envoy in London, and Charles Napier (alias 'Carlos de Ponza') arrived at Porto with reinforcements (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966; Lovell 1835 says 2 Jun 1833). Napier advised the resurrection of an old plan for a surprise sea borne attack against Lisbon, which later got modified to a landing in the Algarve (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto).
8 Jun 1833
Napier was appointed admiral of the liberal squadron (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966). Lovell (1835) says this occurred 12 Jun 1833.
13 Jun 1833
Sartorius and Solignac were dismissed (Cronologia do Liberalismo). Saldanha was nominated chief of the general staff: The Duke of Terceira was appointed commander of the expedition to the south, accompanied by Napier, and Palmela was made civil governor.
24 Jun 1833: Algarve landing
2,500 liberals under Terceira landed in the Algarve (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966; Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34). Cronologia do Liberalismo says at Alagoa and Livermore says at Faro;. They occupied Tavira then marched north through the Alentejo.
4 Jul 1833: Reconnaissance at Lordello and Bomfim
At 1300 hours the Miguelites attacked Lordello (Lovell, 1835). The attack soon extended along the Pedroite front, with the Miguelites making a strong effort to take possession of the Quinta Vanyellares (Mirante), which was defended by some French and Belgian troops, as well as Cacadores. Colonel Duvergier charged them at the head of the French, and the Miguelites were evenutally repulsed, although they had reached at the garden wall. Colonel Duvergier lost his arm upon this occasion, and subsequently died (23 Jul). The Miguelites also made an attack also on the Bomfim, took a piquet-house, and got within the precincts of the place. Saldanha and his staff charged them at the head of a few cavalry, and drove them back. A cannonade was kept up on the city during the whole time. The firing died down at 1700. The defenders lost 130 men. Lovell believed it was an reconnaissance and not a serious attack because there were no attack columns. The defenders, however, styled the repulse a great victory ; the bells rang, and illuminations were ordered. Saldanha was made Lieutenant General, and Pimental full Colonel.
5 Jul 1833: Naval Battle of Cape Saint Vincent
On 5 Jul 1833 the liberal naval squadron under Admiral Napier captured the Miguelite squadron at the battle of Cape Saint Vincent (Cabo São Vincente) (Cronologia do Liberalismo); Livermore, 1966. The liberal fleet include steamships.
With the departure of the liberal naval squadron, the Miguelites believed Porto's defence would be weakened and vigorously attacked on 5 Jul 1833 (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). They were repelled with numerous dead, and due to this triumph Saldanha was promoted the lieutenant-general.
14 Jul 1833
Bourmont appointed commander of the Miguelite army at Porto (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
23 Jul 1833: Action at Piedade
Liberals defeat Miguelites at the action at Piedade (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
This is probably the action described in Lovell (1835) which immediately predated the Liberal entry into Lisbon ... "making a most rapid march, arrived near the Tagus, defeated the corps opposed to him (commanded by Telles Jordaö, who was slain)" (p 307).
24 Jul 1833: Liberals take Lisbon
Terceira entered Lisbon as the Miguelite garrison evacuated (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966).
25 Jul 1833
Soon after 0500 hours the Miguelites made a desperate attempt at Lordello, and against the quinta of Vanzellares (Lovell, 1835). At Lordello the Miguelite cavalry approach, hidden through a small wood. They jumped a stone wall, galloped forward and carried a jieche belonging to the liberals. The cavalry commander, a French officer, was killed, which stalled the attack and prevented them reaching the road a few metres ahead. In another area Miguelite infantry took a Pedroite position only to lose it again. The Miguelites also attacked the quinta of Vanzellares several times; but were repulsed. The new battery at Furada fired away the whole time, and a continual cannonade was kept up by all the batteries.
At 0900 hours the Miguelites attacked Bomfim (Lovell, 1835). General Saldanha took command of the defence. The Miguelite column had reached the entrance to the place, when Saldanha charged, at the head of his staff and 20 lancers (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). The Liberal cavalry drove the Miguelite column back.
By 1400 hours the firing ceased with Miguelite attacks repulsed (Lovell, 1835). The loss on the side of Don Pedro amounted to between three and four hundred men.
26 Jul 1833
Following Sadanha's victory at Porto Dom Pedro left the city by sea, headed for Lisbon where Terceira and Napier were already installed (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto; Lovell, 1835, says night of 27 Jul). Saldanha remained in charge at Porto.
27 Jul 1833
Massacre of the prisoners of Estremoz (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
28 Jul 1833: Pedro enters Lisbon
Pedro arrived in Lisbon (Livermore, 1966). This gave the liberals both of Portugal's major cities, Lisbon and Porto, where they commanded a sizeable following among the middle classes (Wikipedia: Liberal Wars). In contrast the absolutists controlled the rural areas, where they were supported by the aristocracy, and by a peasantry that was galvanized by the Church. A stalemate of nine months ensued. During this time Maria da Glória was proclaimed Queen, with Dom Pedro as Regent. Pedro dismissed Miguelite ministers and clergy and appropriated church property.
4 Aug 1833
Miguelite heavy artillery departs from Porto heading south (Lovell, 1835).
9 Aug 1833
Dom Miguel and his General staff (including Bourmont) headed for the south (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). He left the besiegers under a Frenchman, the Count of Almer, who abandoned some positions but kept up the siege (Lovell, 1835)
England recognised the Government of D. Maria II (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
10 Aug 1833
Dom Miguel was in Coimbra (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
16 Aug 1833
A explosion at about 1200 hours caused the storehouses of the Portuguese Company in Villa Nova to burn down, destroying a large amount of wine (Lovell, 1835). Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto claims this was deliberate sabotage by the retreating Miguelites.
During the afternoon the Miguelites began to retire from from the north of the Douro (Lovell, 1835). On the assumption they would retreat from the city Saldanha began preparations to dog their retreat. Saldanha's plan was to surprise and cut off the rear of the Miguelites at Ayreoso. [Cronologia do Liberalismo has this occur on 20 Aug 1833.]
18 Aug 1833: Miguelites withdraw from Porto
This is the take of Lovell (1835), a British military observer. During the night the Miguelites withdrew from the line around the north side of Porto and fell back upon Vallongo. In they process they abandoned most of their batteries and positions. When skirmishing broke out at day-break the Liberals found themselves facing only piquets and a few occupied redoubts; a strong redoubt at Ayreoso had 200-300 men in. The Miguelite army retreated in good order from post to post. Not everybody got away; Colonel Dodgin, with his British battalion, trapped the garrison of one of the redoubts and persuaded them to surrender. Skirmishing continued till 1200 hours but very few were killed on either side.
The Portuguese take is that Saldanha defeated the besieging Miguelite division at Porto, breaking through in the north and east (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). According to Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto the Miguelites set fire to the wine warehouses in Gaia before they fell back from the wall, however, Lovell (1835) but this incident two days earlier (16 Aug) and it could have been the result of random shell fire.
20 Aug 1833: Siege of Porto lifted
During the night the Miguelites retired from Villa Nova, and in the morning the Pedroites occupied it (Lovell, 1835). Saldanha returned to Porto in triumph (Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto). The city was finally free!
Dom Miguel and his army advanced on Lisbon from Coimbra (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
25 Aug - 10 Oct 1833: Siege of Lisbon
Terceira entered in Lisbon on 24 Jul and a month later (25 Aug) was under siege (Cronologia do Liberalismo). The most active period seemed to be 5-14 Sep, but the liberal lines held. Saldanha sortied on 10 Oct, broke the siege, and forced the Miguelites east toward Santarém
25-26 Aug 1833
The Miguelite forces concentrated near Lisbon (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
5-14 Sep 1833
Liberals repelled attacks to the Lisbon lines (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
18 Sep 1833
Macdonell replaced Bourmont in command of the Miguelite army (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
22 Sep 1833
D. Maria II arrived at Tejo, by sea from France (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
27 Sep 1833
Spain presented Dom Miguel with a demand for the expulsion of Don Carlos from Portuguese territory (Cronologia do Liberalismo), which he ignored.
29 Sep 1833: Ferdinand VII of Spain dies
On 29 Sep 1833 Ferdinand VII of Spain died and his fourth wife Cristina became Queen Regent on behalf of their infant daughter Isabel II (Holt, 1967).
5 Oct 1833: Carlists rise in Spain
5 Oct 1833 saw the start of the First Carlist War in Spain, when the Carlists began to rise in revolt and proclaimed the brother of Ferdinand VII as King Carlos V of Spain (Chant, 1983; Holt, 1967)
10-11 Oct 1833
Saldanha sortied from Lisbon to the east and forced the besiegers to retired to Santarém, which they strengthened (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
France recognised the Government of D. Maria II (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
18 Oct 1833
Colonel Silva Pereira and the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion were in action at Lisbon (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
19 Oct 1833
Colonel Silva Pereira and the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion were in action at Loures (Portugal Dicionário Histrico: Antas).
23 Oct 1833
Belgium recognised the Government of D. Maria II (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
3 Nov 1833
Liberal expedition to the Alentejo; Action at Alcácer; massacre of the prisoners (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
In early 1834 the Spanish General Rodil sent troops into Portugal to capture Carlos and his supporters (Holt, 1967; Livermore, 1966). They were unsuccessful but kept Don Carlos on the run.
14-16 Jan 1834: Leiria
During 14-16 Jan 4,500 Liberals under Saldanha attacked Leiria from two sides (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Wikipedia: Batalha de Almoster). Colonel Silva Pereira and the 5th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Battalion were involved (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). In fear of being cut off the Miguelites abandoned the Castle of Leiria and tried to take refuge in Coimbra. Saldanha subsequently began to strengthen Leiria's defences
30 Jan 1834: Action at Pernes
Early Feb 1834
In the first few days of Feb 1834, General Póvoas, commander of the Miguelite troops, attempted to attack the liberal forces occupying Pernes and surrounding Santarém (Wikipedia: Batalha de Almoster). It is quite likely this is the Action at Pernes that Cronologia do Liberalismo gives on 30 Jan 1834.
18 Feb 1834: Battle of Almoster
On the 18 Feb 1834 general Póvoas led his army towards the Bridge of Asseca, which controls the road to Lisbon (Wikipedia: Batalha de Almoster). Unfortunately for him, Saldnha anticipated this move and arranged for the Miguelites to march into a trap. The road was via a narrow ravine between densely wooded hills. Colonel Queirós with two regiments of light infantry (Caçadores) blocked the Miguelite route of retreat to the the bridge of Saint Maria. Meanwhile Brigadier General Brito, with another two regiments, launched an impetuous bayonet charge into the Miguelites. Saldanha commanded the infantry reserve. The Miguelite defeat was total, with the absolutists losing more than a thousand of men.
After 10 Mar 1834: Siege of Serpa
18 Mar 1834
Operations in the Minho (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
23 Mar 1834: Caminha
Napier took Caminha (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
27 Mar 1834: Santo Tirso
Cabreira entered Santo Tirso (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
2 Apr 1834: Braga
Liberals occupied Braga (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
3 Apr 1834: Valença
Liberals occupied Valença (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
Apr 1834: Pedrite Offensive
Following his capture of Valença Terceira led expedition to the centre of the Kingdom and occupied Viseu, Coimbra and Tomar (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966). Miguel's army (under General Guedes) retreated eastward before the advance of Dom Pedro's forces (Wikipedia: Battle of Aceiceira). Terceira eventually reached Porto. Operations in the Tâmega.
22 Apr 1834: The Quadruple Alliance
On 22 April 1834 the Quadruple Alliance was signed as a counter to the Holy Alliance (Holt, 1967; Livermore, 1966). Portugal, Spain, England and France agreed to banish Dom Miguel from Portugal and Don Carlos from Spain. Spain committed to keep troops in Portugal until the end of the Portuguese Liberal War, England promised naval support for Dom Pedro and Isabel of Spain, and Portugal agreed to supply an auxiliary force for operations against Don Carlos in Spain (Duncan, 1997; Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha).
24 Apr 1834: Skirmish at Saint-Bartholomי de Mecine
5 May 1834: Skirmish at Faro
8 May 1834: Coimbra
Liberals occupied Coimbra (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
9 May: Skirmish at Alhao
10 May 1834: Quadruple Alliance confirmed
Treaty of the Quadruple Alliance confirmed in Lisbon (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
16 May 1834: The Battle of Aceiceira
On the night of 15-16 May 1834 the Miguelite Army was camped in a strong position on the Heights of Aceiceira, a system of hills and valleys about 6.5 km from Thomar (Wikipedia: Battle of Aceiceira). Miguel himself was at Santarem and was not involved in the ensuing battle. Pedro's general, the Duke of Terceira, advanced from Thomar on the morning of the 16 May and attacked the mIguelite position in three columns commanded by Colonels Queiroz, Nepomuceno and Vasconcellos. The Miguelite forces attempted to repel them with artillery bombardment and cavalry charges but the liberal forces persisted in their attacks and eventually a charge by their own cavalry carried the heights. Many of the enemy were killed or wounded, their guns captured, and some 1,400 men taken prisoner. The remainder fled towards Gollegao, which was occupied by Terceira the following day.
17 May 1834
Dom Miguel left Santarém for Évora (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
18 May 1834
Liberals occupied Santarém (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
Dom Pedro (already ill with the sickness that would kill him shortly after his final victory) arrived in Golegã from Cartaxo (Wikipedia: Battle of Aceiceira).
Miguel rallied his forces at Evora (Wikipedia: Battle of Aceiceira). .
27 May 1834: Convention of Monte Évora
Despite still having 18,000 men in the ranks Miguel's officers were unwilling to risk a final battle after nearly two years of warfare, and Miguel was induced to seek terms of capitulation (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Livermore, 1966, actually says peace was declared on 26 May; Wikipedia: Battle of Aceiceira). Dom Miguel renounced all claims to the throne of Portugal and agreed to go into exile.
1 Jun 1834
Both Dom Miguel and Don Carlos departed Portugal from Sines on the British frigate Stag (Cronologia do Liberalismo). Miguel ended up in Austria via Italy - never to return. Don Carlos returned to Spain via England.
20 Jun 1834
In Genoa, Dom Miguel renounced the Monte Évora Convention (Cronologia do Liberalismo), although this did him little good.
18 Jul 1834
Provisional reorganization of the Portuguese Army (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
24 Jul 1834
Colonel Silva Pereira was promoted to Brigadier General (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
20 Sep 1834
D. Maria II swore to uphold the Constitution (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
24 Sep 1834: Dom Pedro dies
On 24 Sep 1834 Dom Pedro died of consumption, and his daughter, Maria da Glória, resumed her interrupted reign as Maria II of Portugal (Livermore, 1966).
18 Oct 1834: New uniform regulations
The Portuguese army issued new regulations on uniform - see Painting Guide for Portuguese.
17 Sep 1835
Brigadier General Silva Pereira became Baron Das Antas (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
Sep 1835 - Sep 1837: Portuguese Auxiliary Division
24 Sep 1835: Portuguese Auxiliary Division
Queen Regent Cristina Maria of Spain (on behalf of her infant daughter Isabel II), and D. Maria II of Portugal, signed a treaty to guarantee Portuguese military aid against Don Carlos in Spain, in accordance with the Treaty of the Quadruple Alliance (Cronologia do Liberalismo). Don Carlos's arrival back in Spain had lent energy to the First Carlist War and the Portuguese Liberals felt obligated to fulfil the obligations of the Quadruple Alliance, and return the favour to the Spanish Liberals for their help during the recent Liberal War in Portugal (Vieira, 2004). As a result a Portuguese Auxiliary Division was sent to Spain to fight the Carlists (Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha). This three brigade force eventually contained 6,000 foot and 750 horse (Cairns, 1994b; Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha). The division was recruited from the best regular units, although one unit, the “Caçadores do Porto”, was said to have been made up of adventurers of all nations left over from Portugal’s recent civil war. Included at least one regiment of well-equipped lancers.
The exiled Portuguese absolutists also wanted to continue the fight for what they believed in and supported by their leader, Dom Miguel, joined Don Carlos forces (Vieira, 2004). This way, many Portuguese came from Portugal (where absolutist guerrillas were still active), England, France and Italy to join the Carlist ranks. The Portuguese in the Carlist Army even formed a Company commanded by the captain António Teles Jordão. Besides many soldiers there were also several Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Miguel in the Carlist Army.
18 Oct 1835
Brigadier General Baron Das Antas led the vanguard of the Portuguese Auxiliary Division into Spain. (Cronologia do Liberalismo; Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). Once the rest of the division joined them the vanguard became the 3rd Brigade (Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha). Brigadier General Santa Marta, Baron do Vale, commanded the division as a whole (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas; Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha).
10 Nov 1835
16 Nov 1835
Some of the officers punished by Saldanha are elect members of the house of representatives (Cronologia do Liberalismo).
17 Nov 1835
The cavalry of the Portuguese Auxiliary Division left Lisbon for Spain (Cronologia do Liberalismo). A group of about 200 officers congregated in Alcântara and asked the queen to cancel the punishment of the officers who had refused to go to Spain. This uprising led to the fall of the government.
The Portuguese Auxiliary Division was reorganised into two columns (Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha). Brigadier General Baron Das Antas commanded the first column of 3,000 men (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas)
12 Mar 1836
The Portuguese Auxiliary Division, or possibly just the column under Baron Das Antas, took part in the taking of Valmacela, and in the action of Castle of Pedra and Venda Mal Abugro (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). For his part in these actions Das Antas was awarded the cross of S.Fernando by the Spanish government.
28-29 Jun 1836
The Portuguese Auxiliary Division, or possibly just the column under Baron Das Antas, were in action on 28 and 29 Jun 1836 (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). For his part in these actions Das Antas was awarded the supreme-cross of Isabel, the Catholic, by the Spanish government.
9 Sep 1836
Rebellious battalions of the national guard of Lisbon proclaimed the democratic constitution of 1820 on the night of 9 Sep 1836 (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
23 Sep 1836
Baron Das Antas, who had taken command of the Portuguese Auxiliary Division from Baron Do Vale, declared for the revolution on 23 Sep 1836 (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). Das Antas and the division, however, continued to fight for Queen Isabel in Spain
13 Oct 1836
Brigadier General Baron Das Antas became Viscount Das Antas (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas)
14 May 1837
In the campaigns of 1837 the Portuguese Auxiliary Division was in action on the banks of the Ebro and at Vitoria (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). On 14 May 1837 repeated attacks by the division rendered unusable many Carlist blockhouses in the lines at Arlaban. Subsequently the Portuguese destroyed the Carlist munitions factory at Barambio, 10 km from Vitoria
18 Jun 1837: Salvatierra
21 Jul 1837: Zambrana
3 Sep 1837
When the cartista revolution broke out the Portuguese government called Viscount Das Antas and the Portuguese Auxiliary Division home (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). As a result Das Antas and his column reached Almeida on 3 Sep 1837. The second column of the division, under Colonel José de Sousa Pinto, proclaimed for the revolution during its march from Valadolid to Salamanca, and then headed for Bragança to join the rebels.
5 Sep 1837
Viscount Das Antas was promoted to Field Marshal (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). He headed for Lamego.
9 Sep 1837
Viscount Das Antas arrived in Lamego (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
13 Sep 1837
Viscount Das Antas arrived in Porto (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
15 Sep 1837
Viscount Das Antas left Porto in the search of the rebels under the baron of Leiria (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas). He found them at Ruivães
20 Sep 1837
the Marshal Duke of Terceira, the Marquis of Saldanha and Viscount Das Antas.signed the
convention of Chaves thus ending the rebellion (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas).
4 Apr 1838
Brigadier General Viscount Das Antas became Count Das Antas (Portugal Dicionário Histórico: Antas)
Cairns, C. (1994b, November). A Savage and Romantic War: Spain 1833-1840. Part II: The Cristino forces. Wargames Illustrated, 86, 36-46.
Câmara Municipal da Praia da Vitória [broken link]
Chant, R. H. (1983). Spanish Tiger: The Life and Times of Ramón Cabrera. New York: Midas.
De Belgische Militaire Expeditie te Portugal [Flemish or Dutch]
Holt, E. (1967). The Carlist Wars in Spain. London: Putnam.
Livermore, H. V. (1966). A New History of Portugal. Cambridge University Press.
0 Cerco Do Porto Na Freguesia (1832-1833) [Portuguese]
Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34 [Portuguese]
Vieira, J. (18 Jun 2004). Personal communication.
Viriatus Miniatures [Portuguese].
Wikipedia: Batalha de Almoster [Portuguese]
Wikipedia: Batalha da Praia da Vitória [Portuguese]
Wikipedia: Belfastada [Portuguese]
Wikipedia: Cerco do Porto [Portuguese]
Wikipedia: Serra do Pilar [Portuguese]